Each one of these categories listed above is elaborated on its own page.
EvolutionEvidence.org then further presents these 3 categories in a flow that allows students to learn Nature of Science material at the same time. This nature of science flow is outlined below.
- Claim: For the purposes of this website these are the hypotheses within evolution. Namely, the common ancestry and descent with modification of species.
- Prediction: If the claim is true, what evidence would you predict that you might find?
- Falsification: If the claim is false, what evidence would you predict that you might find? This is key. Students really, really need to know how to disprove evolution. Not only does this teach how science most often works--by disproving claims--but it also shows the strength of the evolutionary theory. People have been trying to disprove it for the last 150 years and it's come through unscathed.
- Observation: This is a list of observations that could either support or falsify the claim.
- Corroboration: These are supporting evidences that corroborate the observations given. If this is difficult to understand, here are a few examples: Radiometric dating doesn't directly support the theory of evolution but it does corroborate fossil evidence sequences in support of evolution. Anatomical homologies can be corroborated by genetic homologies found between two species. Vestigial structures can be corroborated by showing that the structures give no adaptive advantage or can actually be injurious (think of appendixes becoming infected and rupturing, as happened with the author of this).
- Inference: It's important to allow students to follow the logic closely by pointing out when inferences are made. Like in all historical sciences (sciences that try to reconstruct the past) we are not able to directly test or observe what took place. It's a scientists job, much like a juror in a court room, to come to the most reasonable, logical, evidence-supported, parsimonious inference conclusion.